Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder is Deficits in using communication for social purposes, such as greeting and sharing information, in a manner that is appropriate for the social context. A diagnosis is given when an individual has difficulty using verbal and/or nonverbal communication that is appropriate at the appropriate time. An individual with a family history of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Communication Disorders, or Specific Learning Disorders are more likely to have a SCD diagnosis. These kinds of problems in social communication lead to the child having a difficult time communicating effectively with others, participating in a social manner with others, and can even affect academic performance.
Executive Functioning disorder is the dysfunction of cognitive and mental abilities that enable people with planning, problem-solving, organization, and time management. Children and adults with Executive Function Disorder exhibit a wide variety of difficulties with everyday tasks and some common skills like Understanding Directions and Working Memory, Organization, Planning. Children with ADHD develop executive functioning skills much slower than children without ADHD, Children with learning disabilities can also suffer from EFD. Symptoms of executive dysfunction can vary, symptoms can include: constantly losing personal items, trouble with memory recall or following multistep directions, trouble keeping your office or bedroom organized, misplacing papers, homework, or work or school materials, difficulty with time management, difficulty organizing schedules, difficulty dealing with frustration or setbacks, inability to self-monitor emotions or behaviour.
When a person’s use of alcohol or another substance (drug) leads to health issues or problems at work, school, this has become a disorder. An uncontrolled manner and repeated use of substance (drug) despite harmful consequence. Substance abuse can cause changes in how the brain functions, brain imaging studies shows that changes occurs in the areas of the brain that is related to judgment, decision making, learning, memory, and behavioural control. Changes in the brain’s structure and function are what cause people to have intense cravings for more of the substance. People with a substance use disorder may have symptoms like distorted thinking and behaviours, changes in personality and abnormal movements.
Anxiety disorder is characterized by persistent feelings of fear (a reaction to current events) and anxiety (a worry about future events). These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as increased heart rate and shakiness. Somatic Symptom disorders is when one or more physical symptoms such as pain, weakness or shortness of breath, results in major distress and/or problems or cause disruption in daily life. Symptoms shown are excessive thoughts, feelings or behaviours related to the physical symptoms or health concerns and ongoing high level of anxiety about health or symptoms.
Sleep-wake disorders is also called sleep disorders is described as dysfunctions with the quality, timing, and amount of sleep, which result in daytime distress and impairment in functioning. Sleep-wake disorders often occur along with other mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or cognitive disorders. There are several different types of sleep-wake disorders, of which insomnia is the most common. Lack of sleep and too much sleep are linked to many chronic health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes. Sleep disturbances can also be a warning sign for medical and neurological problems, such as congestive heart failure, and Parkinson’s disease.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that may occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a dangerous, shocking or traumatic event such as rape incident, war or accident, earthquake or flood. Symptoms usually begin early, within 3 months of the traumatic incident, but sometimes they begin years afterward. Symptoms must last more than a month and be severe enough to interfere with relationships or work to be considered PTSD. Bad dreams, Flashbacks- replaying the trauma over and over, Frightening thoughts, including physical symptoms like a racing heart or sweating, are characteristics of PTSD.